Looking for Cyanide, Arsenic, and Other Toxins in Fruit: Apple Seeds, Peach Pits, Cherry Pits, etc.: Facts, Mythes and Old Wive's Tales. Find Out ther Truth! in 2017? Scroll down this page and follow the links. And if you bring home some fruit or vegetables and want to can, freeze, make jam, salsa or pickles, see this page for simple, reliable, illustrated canning, freezing or preserving directions. There are plenty of other related resources, click on the resources dropdown above.
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Notes for August 2017: Blueberries and peaches are going still in northern and cooler areas, but are mostly finished in the Deep South. Blackberries, figs, and raspberries are in season now. Tomatoes are going strong, although the crop is way diminished in rainy areas like the southeast. Strawberries are finished, except in the far north, and if the farm planted Day Neutral varieties. Early apples, like Gala, are about to start!
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With the popularity of juicers and food grinders, some people seem to think that grinding up entire fruit (skin, seeds, pits, stems and all) is somehow healthier than tradition methods. This is not always the case. Some parts of some fruit are not only unpleasant to eat, they can even be dangerous. Here are the facts about toxic parts of fruit.
Apple and crabapple seeds (and seeds of some other fruits, like cherries,
peaches, apricots) contain amygdalin, an organic cyanide and sugar compound
that degrades into hydrogen cyanide (HCN) when metabolized. Cyanide itself
is a poison that kills by denying blood the ability to carry oxygen and
thereby causes its victims to die. It's not an urban legend that apple seeds
contain cyanide; even
Snopes.com has an
article about it. "The Dr. Oz Show" did an episode in which they
talked about the amount of arsenic in children's apple juice.
Apple seeds also have a tough protective coating seals the amygdalin inside, unless the seeds are crushed, chewed or otherwise ground up. Whole apple seeds have hard, durable shells that allow them to pass intact through the digestive systems of people and animals.
The National Institute of Health says:
"The edible portions of dietary plant species commonly used in the United States contain relatively low levels of cyanogen glycosides, although some pits and seeds of common fruits, apple, apricot, peach, contain significantly higher concentrations."
Don't worry: It would take a bushel's worth of ground up apple's seeds (about 1 cup of seeds) to create enough cyanide to poison someone. Grinding apples and pressing them for apple juice or apple cider wouldn't release enough cyanide to be a problem. Neither does cooking apples and straining them to make a sauce. Richard E. Barrans Jr., Ph.D. Assistant Director PG Research Foundation in Darien, Illinois says "About the only way you can actually ruin into a problem with the toxicity of apple seeds is if you save the seeds from about a bushel of apples and eat them all at once."
Still, I don't think I would intentionally group up the seeds and include them in foods. When we make homemade applesauce or juice, the seeds are exclude in the process and most are not even broken nor ground.
According to The Guardian, :
Cyanide toxicity is experienced by humans at doses of around 0.5–3.5 milligrams per kilogram of body weight. Symptoms of cyanide poisoning include stomach cramps, headache, nausea and vomiting, and can culminate in cardiac arrest, respiratory failure, coma and death. A fatal dose for humans can be as low as 1.5 milligrams per kilogram of body weight.
Cherry, peach, and apricot pits, on the other hand, also contain amygdalin, a form of cyanide. Peach and apricot have it in potentially harmful amounts. Of course, few people intentionally swallow or chew them. This NY Times article explains more.
The UK newspaper, The Guardian, reports the following levels of cyanide in various fruit:
Amygdalin in other fruits, in mg/g of seeds:
Organic and inorganic forms of arsenic can be found in soil, both naturally occurring and due to the use of cyanide-containing pesticides prior to the 1970's. As a result, small amounts may taken up by the plans and become found in certain food and beverage products. See the FDA article here.
Logically, yes. But there are not yet credible and objective, independently conducted studies to prove this. And a certain amount of cyanide is normally present in the seeds anyway, as discussed in the first paragraph. You could argue that homemade applesauce and apple juice is safer, because you can ensure the seeds are excluded and not ground up.
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has conducted their own research and proposed a maximum limit for arsenic levels in apple juice. The FDA proposal limits the level of inorganic arsenic to 10 parts per billion. That is the same level as is allowable in drinking water under the Environmental Protection Agency rules. This is the first time the FDA has set limits for arsenic levels in commercial food or drinks.
Compounds that release cyanide are naturally present in plants. The amounts are usually low in the edible portion but are higher in cassava. Pits and seeds of common fruits, such as apricots, apples, and peaches, may have substantial amounts of cyanide-releasing chemicals, so people should avoid eating these pits and seeds to prevent accidental cyanide poisoning. Parents should teach their children not eat fruit pits and seeds. People should be aware that taking high levels of vitamin C may increase the danger of cyanide poisoning from fruit pits, because more cyanide is released from the pits.
[General picking tips and a guide to each fruit and vegetable] [How much do I need to pick? (Yields - how much raw makes how much cooked or frozen)] [Selecting the right varieties to pick] [All about apple varieties - which to pick and why!] [Picking tips for Vegetables] [ Strawberry picking tips] [ Blueberries picking tips]
[ All About Home Canning, Freezing and Making Jams, Pickles, Sauces, etc. ] [FAQs - Answers to common questions and problems] [Recommended books about home canning, jam making, drying and preserving!] [Free canning publications to download and print]]